Fill a pan with about 1 inch of vegetable oil then line a baking tray with a wire rack and paper towel for the donuts to cool and drain, set aside while making the dough.
In a medium bowl combine the flour, sugar, baking powder, baking soda, salt and spices, set aside.
In another large bowl combine the melted butter, buttermilk and eggs. (Check notes for egg substitute)
Using a whisk, gradually whisk the dry ingredients into the wet until a sticky dough is formed.
Transfer the dough to a lightly floured work surface and bring the dough together. Then use your palms to press the dough into roughly a 12-inch rectangle about 1/2 inch thick.
Before cutting out your dough, heat the oil over medium-low heat (this should take 5-7 minutes).
While the oil is heating, cut out your donuts: Using a 3 inch round cookie cutter and a 1-inch cookie cutter, cut out the donuts and the donut holes. You should be able to cut out about 12 donuts. If you have any extra dough left after cutting out, stick it all together, press it out and repeat the process until you have used up all of the dough.
Transfer your cut out donuts and donut holes to a baking tray and place the tray near your stove so you can easily place the donuts into the oil.
To make sure your oil is the right temperature test it with a donut hole. If it's hot enough this should puff up and be golden brown after cooking for roughly 2 minutes per side.
When ready to fry carefully drop the donuts into the oil. Allow the donuts to fry for about 3 minutes per side (donut holes for 2), or until golden brown.
Once puffed up and golden brown on both sides carefully remove from the oil using a fish turner, tongs or spider. Be careful as the oil will be very hot. DO NOT walk away from the pan at any stage of frying. If you need assistance with this step ask for help.
After transferring the cooked donuts to your wire rack, repeat the process with the remaining donuts and donut holes until they are all fried off.
If tossing in cinnamon sugar, this can be done as soon as the donuts are cool enough to handle.
If glazing the donuts do this while still warm so the glaze soaks in. Follow my directions for 5 donut glazes. Allow to cool for about 5-7 minutes then dunk both sides in the glaze. Return to wire rack to set (you may want to do this 2 times for an extra thick layer of glaze).
Enjoy immediately. These donuts are best eaten within 24 hours of cooking. Enjoy!