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Egg Substitutes for baking: The BEST conversion chart for substituting Eggs in Vegan and Vegetarian Baking.

7 Best Egg Substitutes for Baking Recipes & How to Use Them

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My egg substitutes chart has all the information you could ever need for baking egg free treats!

Hi Bold Bakers!

Hands down, the most common request I get is “What can I use as egg substitutes for baking?” I get that question on a daily basis now, so much so that it made me rethink am I catering to this audience enough? I try to make my baking and recipes accessible to everyone but because there has been such a demand for vegetarian baking, egg substitutes for baking and egg free recipes that I want to give you the tools and information you need so you can bake happily without eggs and still get Big & Bold results. Plus, I even show you how and when to use them. Watch my new video below and get a FREE Downloadable Conversion Chart further below.


Many want to avoid eggs for a lot of reasons: health, culture/religion, dietary restrictions, etc. Although adding eggs makes for a different end product, it does not mean that we cannot do without it. There might be a change in taste and texture but for the most part the end result is still pretty similar. Here is a list which comes in handy for me while I am making such a recipe.

Egg Substitutes for Baking

How much egg substitute do I add to replace an egg?

1 egg is roughly 1/4 cup (4 tablespoons/60g/2oz) so you need to replace that volume in your recipe. Your egg substitute needs to equal the amount of egg you are leaving out.

Banana is a substitute for eggs in baking recipes Yogurt is a Substitute for Eggs in Baking Applesauce is a substitute for eggs in baking Tofu is a substitute for eggs in baking Flax is a substitute for eggs in bakingWater is a substitute for eggs in baking Sweetened Condensed Milk is a substitute for Eggs in baking Buttermilk is a good substitute for eggs in baking

Most commonly used egg substitutes for baking are:

Mashed Banana


Silken Tofu

Ground Flax Seed mixed with water

Yogurt (dairy free or regular)


Sweetened Condensed Milk

[If you’re looking to substitute sugar in your recipes be sure to head over to my post on How to Substitute Sugar.]

How to substitute eggs in cakes How to substitute eggs in cupcakes

Egg Substitutes for Cakes and Cupcakes

For each whole egg used you can substitute it with one of the following:

½ a medium Banana, mashed

¼ cup (4 tablespoons) Apple sauce

¼ cup (4 tablespoons) Silken Tofu 

¼ cup (4 tablespoons) Buttermilk

How to Substitute Eggs in Cookies

Egg Substitutes for Cookies

For each whole egg used you can substitute it with one of the following:

1 tablespoon ground flax seed + 3 tablespoon water

¼ cup (4 tablespoons) Sweetened Condensed Milk

How to Substitute Eggs in Brownies

Egg Substitutes for Brownies

For each whole egg used you can substitute it with one of the following:

1 tablespoon ground Flax Seed + 3 tablespoon water

½ a medium Banana, mashed

¼ cup (4 tablespoons) Apple sauce

¼ cup (4 tablespoons) Silken Tofu 

¼ cups (4 tablespoons) Yogurt (vegan or regular)

¼ cup (4 tablespoons) Buttermilk

Flax Egg SubstituteFlax plus water is a good egg substitute

Notes about using Flax Seed as an egg substitute

1 tablespoon ground Flax Seed + 3 tablespoon water= 1 egg

Grind the Flax Seeds in a coffee grinder, and mix with water. Allow it to rest till it becomes gelatinous, then use.

Tofu as an egg substitute

Notes about using Silken Tofu as an egg substitute

1/4 cup blended Silken Tofu = 1 egg

Process in a blender until completely smooth and creamy, leaving no graininess or chunks. Now it is ready to use as an egg substitute in your recipes.



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Meet Gemma

Hi Bold Bakers! I’m Gemma Stafford, a professional chef originally from Ireland, and I’m passionate about sharing my years of experience to show you how to make game-changing baking recipes with over-the-top results! Join more than 1 Million other Bold Bakers in the community for new video recipes every week!

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  1. Shirlynn on November 13, 2018 at 1:17 am

    Aloha Gemma,
    I cannot open your e-recipe book download. I keep getting an error message that says that the PDF is not a valid file.
    I’m very disappointed because I was wanting to view some of your other recipes. What do I need to do?

    • Gemma Stafford on November 13, 2018 at 1:51 am

      Hi Shirlynn,
      This may be an issue with your browser, I will email you a fresh link right now.
      Thank you for letting me know,
      Gemma 🙂

  2. Breanne on November 12, 2018 at 5:32 pm

    This has been so helpful. I have used flax seed and the commercial ready egg replaces. I like having other choices. I am try to do a pumpkin pie, which would be best out of all your choices to replace egg?

    • Gemma Stafford on November 12, 2018 at 8:09 pm

      That’s a great question. We found that flax egg would be the best replacer in pumpkin pie.

      Hope this helps,

  3. Susan on November 11, 2018 at 5:26 am

    Is there a substitute for just egg yolks? (Example recipe: sugar cookie in a mug)

    • Gemma Stafford on November 12, 2018 at 6:27 am

      Hi Susan,
      Yes! really you can use ant egg substitute but consider always the function of the ingredient you are subbing out. In this case it adds a little richness. Banana/applesauce/yogurt/flax egg will all be good for this. For some recipes cider vinegar with a little extra baking powder, for others, such as cookies on a flat tray, condensed milk, though this adds sweetness and the sugars may need to be adjusted too.
      That is it! Happy baking,
      Gemma 🙂

  4. Rose ONeill on November 5, 2018 at 3:17 pm

    Hi Gemma,

    Just have to say your an amazing inspiration….I’m Italian woman married to an Irish husband who loves my cooking,…especially if I make an Irish;)… Anyway wanted to make one of your donuts recipes but having a hard time finding Buttermilk….Can I substitute the Buttermilk with an egg instead..??.. Many thanks for all your help… Your the Best… Slainte!!!

    Best Regards,
    Rose O’Neill

    • Gemma Stafford on November 6, 2018 at 3:35 am

      Hi Rose,
      You sure do have a good old Irish name for an Italian woman! Irish men, in common with all men, love their food! Especially their ‘Mammy’s’ food, lol 😉
      ( here is a good sub for you. Most commercial buttermilk is cultured in a similar way to this. I hope this is of help to you, and your husband too, say hi to him from his country woman,
      Gemma 🙂

  5. Brenda Wynne on November 4, 2018 at 2:35 pm

    Hi, Would it be the same to substitute ground chia seed for the flax? Thanks

    • Gemma Stafford on November 4, 2018 at 8:35 pm

      Yes, Brenda absolutely use chia seed for flax 🙂


  6. Asha gowry. on November 2, 2018 at 7:01 am

    Hi Gemma, thank you very much for the detailed information. .

    • Gemma Stafford on November 3, 2018 at 6:08 am

      Thank you for being here with us,
      Gemma 🙂

  7. Shruti on October 31, 2018 at 8:03 pm

    Hi there Gemma,

    I really appreciate the variety of egg substitutes you’ve mentioned as I often find myself in circumstances needing egg replacements when baking. I was really wanting to make your chocolate brownie cookies recipe but without egg, and just wanted to clarify whether yogurt or condensed milk would work well since as a substitution, as they are what I have in hand?


    • Gemma Stafford on November 3, 2018 at 5:07 am

      Hi Shruti,
      I think the yogurt would be best for this recipe as the condensed milk is also a sugar and you would need to make a lot of adjustments.
      Flax egg too would be good, or a combination of yogurt and flax egg. This bake does not have a leavening agent, it is a dense thing, so really should work well with almost any of the subs.
      I hope this works well for you,
      Gemma 🙂

  8. Lucinda Nauerth on October 22, 2018 at 8:54 pm

    Hi Gemma! I just wanted to add to your egg substations! For years i have always used musical whip or mayo(that’s too greasy) or corn starch and water# the only thing with the Mir whip is you have to them remember to cut back on the oil! Sounds bad but it really does work!

    • Gemma Stafford on October 23, 2018 at 9:53 am

      Lucinda, thank you.
      I have never heard of this one before, but I am adding it to my ‘to try’ list. I really have to add miracle whip to the list too, it would be interesting to try it.
      Gemma 🙂

  9. Prateek on October 1, 2018 at 2:37 pm

    Hi Gemma,
    For cookies, can we simply replace eggs with the same weight of milk?
    Also, for a cake like genoise, is there any egg replacement possible? And for cakes that call for separated whites and yolks, whipped egg whites, what alternative is available?
    Could you please refer to me a few eggless sponge cake recipes?

    • Gemma Stafford on October 2, 2018 at 3:27 am

      Hi Pratkeet,
      This is a bit like reinventing the wheel!
      Genoise is a mousse really, and this relies very much on egg, the yolk and butter for richness, the whites for leavening.
      The fat free sponge is even more tricky to work. There are suggestions around using bicarbonate of soda and vinegar, to act as the egg replacement, but I have not tried this. It may very well be the answer for the light airy texture of this type of cake. One tablespoon of white vinegar to one teaspoon of bicarbonate of soda, per egg to be replaced should work well for you.
      Egg whites are substituted with aquafaba, the water in which chick peas/beans have been cooked, google this and learn to use it.
      Egg yolks are a different thing, they add richness to a recipe, and help to smooth the batter too. Try flax egg for this, depending on the recipe.
      This is science really, experiment, get it to work for you. write it down as you go and make notes of the results, that is what I would do!
      Gemma 🙂

  10. Azizah on September 23, 2018 at 11:10 pm

    Hi Gemma, first of all would like to say thanks to the detailed explanations and tips. It’s been a great help when i do my baking. What I would like to know is that how do i know if a the egg in a particular recipe is just a binder or leavening agent? Is there something i should look for in the recipes. Thank you in advance

    • Gemma Stafford on September 24, 2018 at 1:31 am

      Hi Azizah,
      This is a really great Bold Baker question and it shows your understanding of the science of baking.
      Think about it like this, egg whites leaven, egg yolks enrich.
      Meringue is the ultimate expression of leavening by egg, and after that will be things like egg sponges, no fat, enriched by the yolks.
      some sponges which contain fat are also helped by the eggs, so we aerate the butter and sugar by beating, then beat the eggs in one at a time, to allow them to emulsify the mix (almost like you would for mayonnaise) and the whites further lift it. sometimes you would beat in the yolks and fold in the whipped egg whites to bring the lightness/airyness to a sponge cake.
      I hope this gives you the idea.
      substituting each element of the egg separately can be a challenge, so things like custards for instance can be difficult to replicate.
      Flax egg is a good all rounder and is worth getting to know. Aquafaba when egg whites are required. You can experiment too with combining things to get the result you want, you will be an expert in no time at all.
      Thank you for this question, it is interesting.
      Gemma 🙂

      • Azizah on September 24, 2018 at 11:08 pm

        Hi Gemma,
        Thank you for the detailed explanation. Very technical I must say and I think I understand but I will need to read it again to really understand before I start experimenting.
        Actually I had started with replacing an egg with homemade buttermilk last night. It works wonderful… I really thank you for all that you have done. I hope one day I could be as good and knowledgeable as you.
        Love Azizah from Singapore

        • Gemma Stafford on September 25, 2018 at 1:25 am

          Hi Azizah,
          good for you! I am happy to hear that you are baking and experimenting. I say experience is the very best teacher, we learn as much from our mistakes as from our successes.
          Thank you for your kind words,
          Gemma 🙂

          • Azizah on September 27, 2018 at 7:43 pm

            Hi Gemma,
            i had actually re-read your explanation on the egg as a binding and leavening agent. Base on my understanding, the eggs yolks are needed to make the batter smoother and help stabilizing the air bubbles. While the egg whites are generally strengtheners and help the batter becomes lighter. Thus the more egg whites the more dryer the batter will be. is that correct?
            Last night i had done another testing where i had replaced 50% of the required eggs with buttermilk. It rise and the cakes are more moisture than when i used full eggs. does this mean that the buttermilk is helping the batter with the binding and leavening? I was thinking of doing another test where i would want to completely replace the eggs but i feel that it may not be a wise idea cos the batter may be too watery and it will not help with the biding. Would you suggest that?

            • Gemma Stafford on October 1, 2018 at 10:31 am

              Hi there,
              more science! Really it depends on the recipe, and like sugar, the eggs have different functions in different recipes. The yolk of the egg certainly smooths, but more importantly it adds richness to the recipe. To understand this fully think about custards/creme brulee/creme patissiere etc.
              egg whites help to leaven and to lighten, think here about meringue!
              An egg sponge, fat free, can be a delightful thing, the eggs for richness the whites for leavening and structure.
              It depends on the recipe.
              When you replace the eggs in a recipe you change the result, this is a fact. The extent of the change depends on the reliance on the eggs in the recipe.
              buttermilk/yogurt/curd can add an acid, and egg yolks are slightly acidic too. The acid ingredients will react with the raising agent to a greater or lesser extent, depending on what it is. This is a big subject.
              Certainly reducing the eggs will help you. flax egg/Chia egg is a general useful egg substitute. High in protein and good fats it is a useful thing. You make this with ground seeds,
              I hope this is of help,
              Gemma 🙂

          • Sophia on October 12, 2018 at 7:14 am

            Hey Gemma,

            I was reading your post and your reply to Azizah. I’m trying to make banana bread for my future in-laws who are strict vegetarians (not vegan) and I really do need to impress them.

            In replacing the eggs (2 in my recipe), the whites serve to bind and add structure and yolks add richness. I was thinking of using flax eggs plus 1tsp baking powder to replace the contribution of the egg whites. But what do I use to add richness back into the batter?

            Also how do I incorporate the flax egg into the batter? Same as eggs, ie after creaming the butter and sugar? Do I beat the flax eggs like I would normal eggs to get volume or just gently mix them in?

            Thank you in advance! I really want to get it perfect!

            Love, from Singapore,

            • Gemma Stafford on October 13, 2018 at 9:03 pm

              Yes you can use flax egg and add it in the exact same way you add regular eggs.

              Do you know how to make a flax egg? mix ground flax with a little water and let it stand for 10 minutes.

              Good luck with your banana bread 🙂

  11. Sharvani on September 20, 2018 at 2:57 pm

    Hey Gemma,
    First of all, I have great admiration for the hard work you put in your work. Watching you bale is an absolute joy and most of the time I do it only for the pleasure. I haven’t really baked a lot of things because I feel a little intimidated by the fine detailed work that sometimes goes into it. I have been considering baking a cake for my brother this time for his birthday next month. My question to you is, if I substitute the eggs with banana, will I not run the risk of altering the taste of the cake as well?

    • Gemma Stafford on September 22, 2018 at 8:33 am

      Hi there,
      good question! And good sister too.
      Really it depends on your choice of recipe. Rather oddly, unless you do not like banana, you would not taste it in a chocolate cake for instance.
      If you are making a vanilla sponge, use applesauce as the egg replacement. Get to know flax or chia egg too, a very useful thing to have to hand, and milled seeds are easy to store for a long time.
      ( this chart may help you to decide what will work well for you, and what you have in your pantry.
      Check out too the egg free recipes here (
      I hope this is of help, if you tell me the cake you wish to bake I will try to suggest the right substitute for you,
      Gemma 🙂

  12. Shama Shaikh on September 19, 2018 at 5:19 am

    Hi Gemma, thanks for doing this post. Just one question do we have to increase the baking powder or baking baking soda in the recipe Incase we are using egg substitute.

    • Gemma Stafford on September 19, 2018 at 6:07 am

      Hi there,
      This is a complex enough subject as it is so dependent on the recipe you are using.
      Extra bicarbonate of soda, with a little vinegar can be a good option for some cookies, but not all. Condensed milk is also a good option for cookies, but you may need to adjust the sugars in the recipes by the same amount as the added condensed milk, generally you will do this in a balanced way, across the types of sugars.
      You need to consider the result you want. A crisp cookie will do well with condensed milk, or the soda and vinegar. Yogurt can help too, but honestly it is about trying what you have to hand, see how it works and adjust as you go forward,
      Gemma 😉

  13. Pooja on September 12, 2018 at 12:29 am

    Playing tell me if I can use only condensed milk for cup cakes, brownies in place of eggs and the quantity of condensed milk in place of one egg

    • Gemma Stafford on September 12, 2018 at 2:47 am

      Hi Pooja,
      The thing to remember about condensed milk is that it is like a liquid sugar. This is not the best thing to add to a recipe which already has a lot of sugar.
      for cupcakes and brownies I would choose applesauce/pureed banana/curd/yogurt/flax egg/silken tofu so as not to upset the sugar balance.
      The chart tells you 3 tablespoons per egg for condensed milk, but I would not use it in a sponge cake.
      I hope this is of help,
      Gemma 🙂

  14. Juana on September 10, 2018 at 4:28 am

    Hi Emma! This explanation of egg substitutes is amazing. I was wondering if you have one for butter as I want to try to make some recipes all vegan and I would like to use some oil on them.

    Thank you so much!

    • Gemma Stafford on September 10, 2018 at 5:26 am

      Hi Juana,
      Thank you for your kind words.
      When you replace butter for oil in a recipe you need to do it carefully. About 1/3 less oil than the amount of butter. butter is more than just fat.
      This is a general rule, you can vary it according to each recipe, but it will work well,
      Gemma 🙂

      • Juana on September 10, 2018 at 5:52 am

        Thanks, Gemma, and sorry for the typo mistake, my computer changes some words and I didn’t double check before sending my previous comment. So if I understood right, if a recipe has 90 grams of butter I should use 60 grams of oil?

        Thanks again 🙂

        • Gemma Stafford on September 11, 2018 at 6:12 am

          Hi Juana,
          I think that will work well for you. Do not worry about spell check, you should see some of my comments! The phone does not help, never as easy as the laptop,
          Gemma 🙂

          • Juana Vásquez on September 15, 2018 at 4:00 am

            Hi Gemma,

            I have a question about eggs substitutes, do you know what should I do if the recipe only uses egg yolks? I’ve seen that aquafaba is great for egg whites, but I don’t know what to do in the case of egg yolks.

            Thanks again! 🙂


            • Gemma Stafford on September 16, 2018 at 6:22 am

              Hi Juana,
              Really this is specific to the recipe. You have to ask yourself ‘what is the purpose of the egg in this recipe?’.
              Eggs play a different role in different things. They create structure, they thicken sauces and custards, they add moisture to cakes and other baked goods, they enrich breads and cakes, they can be the leavening and can even act as glue to bind ingredients without adding too much water.
              So, flax egg is a super enriching thing, you can use that in places along with aquafaba too if you wish. Sometimes the aquafaba is enough if the role is to bind, or leaven for instance.
              you just need to think about this, you can find the answer according to the recipe,
              Gemma 🙂

  15. Aditya on September 7, 2018 at 4:23 am

    Hi Gemma,

    I recently made Chocolate Vanilla Marble cake in 9×5 inch loaf tin. The recipe called for 2 eggs and I happened to have just 1. The recipe also called for yogurt. So, I added about 60g more yogurt than the recipe indicated to compensate for the weight of one egg.
    The result was a cake that was crumbly when I sliced it. Your views of this?

    • Gemma Stafford on September 7, 2018 at 8:17 am

      Hi there,
      The change of ingredients in a recipe will always affect the results. for a sponge type recipe applesauce is a great sub, and flax egg too keeps the moisture in the mix. I am surprised though that the yogurt was not as effective for you, especially as you had one egg. I would need to know the recipe though in order to be sure. It may have had insufficient fat, though if you have made this before with eggs you will know better than me.
      Sorry, not much help I know,
      Gemma 🙂

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